Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Biography of Christine de Pizan, Medieval Writer Christine de Pizan (1364 to 1430), born in Venice, Italy, was an Italian writer and political and moral thinker during the late medieval period. She became a prominent writer at the French court during the reign of Charles VI, writing on literature, morals, and politics, among other topics. SheÃ was noted for her unusually outspoken defense of women. Her writings remained influential and oft-printed through the 16thÃ century, and her work returned to prominence during the mid-20thÃ century. Fast Facts: Christine de Pizan Known For: Early feminist thinker and influential writer in the royal court of Charles VI of FranceBorn: 1364 in Venice, ItalyDied: 1430 in Poissy, FrancePublished Works: The Book of the City of Ladies, The Treasure of the City of LadiesFamous Quote:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The man or the woman in whom resides greater virtue is the higher; neither the loftiness nor the lowliness of a person lies in the body according to the sex but in the perfection of conduct and virtues.Ã¢â¬ Ã (fromÃ The Book of the City of Ladies) Early Life Pizan was born in Venice to Tommaso di Benvenuto da Pizzano, later known by the Gallicized moniker Thomas de Pizan, in reference to the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s origins in the town of Pizzano. Thomas was a physician, astrologer, and politician in Venice Ã¢â¬â then a republic in its own right Ã¢â¬â and accepted a posting to the French court of Charles V in 1368. His family accompanied him there. Unlike many of her contemporaries, Pizan was well educated from a young age, in large part thanks to her father, who encouraged her learning and provided access to an extensive library. The French court was highly intellectual, and Pizan absorbed it all. Wed and Widowed At the age of fifteen, PizanÃ married Etienne du Castel, a court secretary. The marriage was, by all accounts, a happy one. The pair were close in age, and the marriage produced three children in ten years. Etienne encouraged Pizans intellectual and creative pursuits as well. Pizans father Thomas died in 1386, with some debts outstanding. Because Thomas had been the royal favorite, the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s fortunes were not as bright after his death. In 1389, tragedy struck again. Etienne fell ill and died, most likely from the plague, leaving Pizan a widow with three young children. With no surviving male relatives, Pizan was left as the sole supporter of her children and her mother (and a niece, according to some sources). When she attempted to claim the salary still owed to her late husband, she was forced to engage in legal battles to get what was owed. Writer at Court The royal courts of England and Milan both expressed interest in Pizans presence, but her loyalty remained with the court where she had spent nearly her entire life. The natural decision might have been to remarry, but Pizan made the decision to not seek a second husband among the men at court. Instead, she turned to her considerable writing skill as a means to support her family. At first, PizansÃ output mainly consisted of love poetry in the favored styles of the era. Several of the ballads were expressions of grief over EtienneÃ¢â¬â¢s passing, again highlighting the genuine affection of their marriage. Pizan was highly involved in the production of her books, and her skillful poetry and embrace of Christian morals caught the eyes of many of the wealthy, titled courtiers. Writing romantic ballads was also a crucial means of gaining patrons, given the popularity of the form. As time passed, she gained many patrons, including Louis I, Duke of Orleans, Phillip, Duke of Burgundy, Marie of Berry, and even an English earl, the Earl of Salisbury. Because of her ability to utilize these powerful patrons, PizanÃ was able to navigate a time of major turmoil in the French court during the reign of Charles VI, who earned the moniker Ã¢â¬Å"the MadÃ¢â¬ due to his bouts of mental illness that rendered him unfit to rule for stretches of time. Pizan also wrote many of her works for and about the French royal family. In 1404, her biography of Charles V was published, and she often dedicated pieces of writing to the royals. A 1402 work was dedicated to Queen Isabeau (Charles VIÃ¢â¬â¢s wife) and compared the queen to the historical queen Blanche of Castile. Literary Quarrel Pizans poetry was clearly influenced by her own experience of losing her husband and being left to fend for herself, but some poems had an unusual tone that set her apart. One poem describes a fictionalized Pizan being touched by the personification of Fortune and Ã¢â¬Å"changedÃ¢â¬ into a male, a literary depiction of her struggles to be her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s breadwinner and fulfill a Ã¢â¬Å"maleÃ¢â¬ role. This was only the start of Pizans writings on gender. In 1402, PizanÃ gained attention as the instigator of a famous literary debate, the Ã¢â¬Å"Querelle du Roman de la RoseÃ¢â¬ or the Ã¢â¬Å"Quarrel of the Romance of the Rose.Ã¢â¬ The debate centered on the Romance of the Rose, written by Jean de Meun, and its harsh, misogynistic depictions of women. Pizans writings defended women from these portrayals, using her extensive knowledge of literature and rhetoric to debate at a scholarly level. The Book of the City of Ladies The work for which Pizan is best known is The Book of the City of Ladies (Le Livre de la citÃ © des dames). In this work and its companion, The Treasure of the City of Ladies, PizanÃ created an extensive allegory in defense of women, marking her as one of the earliest Western feminist authors. The central idea of the work is the creation of a great metaphorical city, constructed by and for heroic, virtuous women throughout history. In the book, PizansÃ fictionalized self has a lengthy dialogue with three ladies who are the personifications of great virtues: Reason, Rectitude, and Justice. Her rhetoric is designed to critique the oppression of women and the vulgar, misogynistic attitudes of male writers of the day. It included profiles and Ã¢â¬Å"examplesÃ¢â¬ drawn from great women of history, as well as logical arguments against oppression and sexism. Additionally, the book exhorts women of all stations to cultivate their skills and to live well. Even in the production of her book, Pizan advanced the cause of women. The Book of the City of Ladies was produced as an illuminated manuscript, which Pizan herself oversaw. Only skilled women were employed to produce it. Political Writings During PizansÃ life, the French court was in considerable turmoil, with various factions constantly vying for power and the king incapacitated much of the time. Pizans writings urged unity against a common enemy (the English, with whom the French were fighting the Hundred YearsÃ¢â¬â¢ War) rather than civil war. Unfortunately, civil war broke out around 1407. In 1410, PizanÃ published a treatise on warfare and chivalry, in which she discussed the concepts of just war, treatment of troops and prisoners, and more. Her work was balanced for her time, adhering to the contemporary concept of war as divinely ordained justice but also critiquing the cruelties and crimes committed in wartime. As her connection to the royal family remained intact, PizanÃ also published The Book of Peace, her final major work, in 1413. The manuscript was dedicated to the young dauphin, Louis of Guyenne, and was filled with advice on how to govern well. In her writing, Pizan advocated against civil war and advised the prince to set an example for his subjects by being wise, just, honorable, honest, and available to his people. Later Life and Death After the French defeat at Agincourt in 1415, PizanÃ stepped away from court and retired to a convent. Her writing ceased, although in 1429, she wrote a paean to Joan of Arc, the only such French-language work written in JoanÃ¢â¬â¢s lifetime. Christine de Pizan died at the convent in Poissy, France in 1430 at the age of 66. Legacy Christine de Pizan was one of the earliest feminist writers, defending women and placing value on the perspectives of women. Her works criticized the misogyny found in classical romances and were seen as vindications of women. After her death,Ã The Book of the City of Ladies remained in print, and her political writings continued to circulate as well. Later scholars, most notably Simone de Beauvoir, brought Pizans works back to prominence in the twentieth century, studying her as one of the earliest instances of women who wrote in defense of other women. Sources Brown-Grant, Rosalind. Christine de Pizan and the Moral Defence of Women. Cambridge University Press, 1999.Ã¢â¬Å"Christine de Pisan.Ã¢â¬ Brooklyn Museum, https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/dinner_party/place_settings/christine_de_pisanÃ¢â¬Å"Christine de Pizan Biography.Ã¢â¬ Biography, https://www.biography.com/people/christine-de-pisan-9247589Lunsford, Andrea A., editor. Reclaiming Rhetorica: Women and in the Rhetorical Tradition.Ã University of Pittsburgh Press, 1995.Porath, Jason. Rejected Princesses: Tales of HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢s Boldest Heroines, Hellions, and Heretics. New York: Dey Street Books, 2016.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Have vs Having in Certain Expressions Have vs Having in Certain Expressions Have vs Having in Certain Expressions By Maeve Maddox Paul Russell poses an interesting question about the use of have and having. He points out the common ESL error of saying I am having a headache and asks: Why can I say Im having my lunch but not Im having a headache? Some explanations Ive read indicate its all to do with possession. Ã But every time I think I have it figured, I have to wonder why I must say I have a cold when I cant say I have a heart attack. Im sure youll be having a good explanation for me:-) Heres the usual rule given to ESL students concerning the use of have to show possession or to describe medical conditions: Have should always be in the simple present tense for the meaning to own, or to describe medical problems. For example: They have a new car. I have a bad cold. It is incorrect to say I am having a cold or I am having a new car. Im having a heart attack does seem to contradict this rule. I think that the difference between I have a headache and Im having a heart attack may have more to do with duration than with either a medical condition or possession. One can have a heart condition, but a heart attack is a singular event, usually over in a few seconds or minutes. One may say I hope I wont have a heart attack, but in the event that one has oneand is capable of telling someoneam having is the only possibility. A headache is generally of longer duration than a heart attack. It may last an hour, several hours, or days. The same applies to a cold. Both are events of indeterminate duration. You have them for a while. If youre seated at a table having your lunch, youre engaged in an activity with a predictable end. Youll stop having lunch when youve finished eating. Thats my theory, anyway. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:"Because Of" and "Due To" 36 Poetry Terms10 Terms for the Common People
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Hiv the past and present global y - Essay Example Because of AIDS, there had been sever distortion in the economy of Africa and also the life expectancy of the region has been significantly affected. It is not only an epidemic suffocating Africa, but all the continents of world are suffering hardly to combat this disease. According to (Ashford,2006)Ã¢â¬Å"By 2005, more than 25 million people had died and an estimated 39 million were living with HIV. An estimated 4 million people were newly infected with HIV in 2005Ã¢â¬â95percent of them in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, or AsiaÃ¢â¬ . HIV is not only a disease devastating global society, but it is also the fourth ranked fatal diseases in the world. The number of children and adults died because of this epidemic is far beyond imagination and statistics. The Origin of HIV It is a common notion among people that origin of HIV/AIDS virus is due to some natural phenomena. It is widely believed that African men contracted AIDS from some chimpanzee during hunting time. As per (Hor owitz,2002(Ã¢â¬Å"Key among these HIV origin theories is the so called "cut hunter theory" in which a human, allegedly African native, received a bloody wound or infected splash while preparing a chimpanzee carrying a similar virusÃ¢â¬ . But further researched ignored this concept, and accused human for the emergence of HIV and AIDS. The HIV was however, first recognized in 1981, when many gay men developed an unexplainable resistance to medication for their acquired infections and cancers. Interestingly, HIV scientifically called Human Immunodeficiency Virus progressed to become AIDS. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or otherwise called AIDS can harm the immunity of a person and can cause death of the person. Once a person have detected with HIV, then he in few years a victim gets AIDS. AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection. It is only good if the person infected with HIV in the initial stage is treated otherwise he can be diseased with AIDS which is fatal.Ã¢â¬Å"CDC estimat es that about 56,000 people in the United States contracted HIV in 2006.There are two types of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2. In the United States, unless otherwise noted, the term Ã¢â¬Å"HIVÃ¢â¬ primarily refers to HIV-1Ã¢â¬ (NCH,2010).It can be an astonishing fact, but the origin of HIV is still in ambiguity and up to date science is engaged in study about the origin of this malicious disease. HIV Prevalence in African continent HIV is a condition over the past three decades have cause irrevocable damage to health, wellbeing and sustenance of a person. In 27 years time, HIV has killed around 25 million people and causes debilitating illness and horrifying death states to people in their prime years of life. This disease has not only caused damage to the life of a person but also caused devastation to the family and community surrounding them. Moreover it had kept a very complicated situation in front of African countries in fighting the poverty and improvement of health of their socie ty.As per (Chao,2010,pg.41-50) Ã¢â¬Å"South Africa is at the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic severely affecting nearly all countries in sub Saharan Africa.Ã South Africa has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the worldÃ¢â¬ . The effect of HIV on health can show many symptoms and
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Anaylysis of business enviornment - Assignment Example Some of the available techniques of promotion include using the print media and other media such as radio and TV. This is likely to catch the attention of many potential buyers. This will tend to increase demand of cars. The price of a car Affordability of cars will most certainly increase their demand. However, if the prices are not friendly, demand of cars will be less. This is the prime reason why a company that sells cars should fix the prices skilfully so as not to affect the sales (Frank, 2006, p. 57). Financing options A population found in a country where access to loans is easier will find it easier to buy a car than those who cannot access a loan. Banks and other financial institutions give loans to people who are employed or are doing businesses with returns that can pay off the loan. The income of the buyer Those buyers that earn a lot are able to buy more than one car. Those who earn little are not even able to afford a car. This is the reason why it is important to star t up a car selling business in places where people have good income. In such a place, demand will certainly be higher. New offerings With the introduction of a new model in the market, the demand of this car is usually higher. People tend to buy new models due to changes in the make. They may love the new colour, shape and speed of the new car and as such, they will be influenced to buy. Tastes and preferences If the customers change their taste and preference towards a particular type of car, its demand will most certainly go down. However, if the tastes and preferences of the consumer are in line with the available type of cars, then this will make demand higher. Economic conditions The most influential economic conditions include inflation and balance of payments. When there is inflation, the prices of goods and services tend to go high. In this case, consumers will pay higher for basic commodities than was the case initially. In this case, therefore, consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to purchase is strained. They are not able to buy luxuries such as cars, hence their demand goes down. On the contrary, if the prevailing economic conditions are favourable, people will have money to spend, hence the demand for luxuries such as cars will be higher (Bade and Parkin, 2001, p. 43). 2. What product or service might have a highly positive cross elasticity of demand with the market for cars? Describe its impact on the market for cars. Cross elasticity of demand measures the effect of the demand of one good because of the change in the price of another good. The elasticity is measured because of the change in price of one good and how this will affect another commodity demand. The two goods are either compliments or substitutes. When the cross elasticity of demand is positive, it shows that the goods are substitutes. When it is negative, the two products are complements. In the market for cars, motorcycles are the products with a highly positive cross elasticity of demand. O ther substitutes are the public transport such as busses and trains. Many people are opting to buy motorcycles in place for cars due to the effective nature of motorcycles as compared to cars. Customers in a situation where substitutes have such a positive cross elasticity of demand, opt for the product with the highest advantage. In the market of cars, the main reason why people are moving to
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Global human power Essay Most of the victims in the novel were Frankensteins family, William, Henry, Justine and Elizabeth. These people all suffered due to the creatures anger from Frankensteins original neglect, which is what begun the hatred in the creature. It is not fair to view the creature as a human, as he was artificially created he has no human morals and has never been taught the difference between right and wrong, in the same sense that a court would never convict a baby. Although the creature did manage to master human language skills, it only pushed him further away from society as it allowed him to express his alien nature. We can see this in the novel when the creature put his hand into a fire, because the colours and heat of the fire attracted him I thrust my hand into the live embers but quickly drew it out again with a cry of pain. The creature was a victim in the way that he was uneducated of the world before he stepped into it. Elizabeth can easily be portrayed as a hero in the novel as she represented a saintly soul and a living spirit of love. This lets her down however, when she attempts to save Justine in a religiously Christian based way, which was not successful. Although viewed as a hero she doesnt contain any power over other characters, just a good heart. There is controversy over whether Frankenstein could be viewed as a hero or not, as a cowardly attribute is certainly not a trait of a true hero. When the monster asked him to create a companion for him, he said no as this would enables the creatures to breed and possibly take over global human power. On the other hand he could have spared his family a lot of trouble if he had just created another being who could have possibly shown the love and understanding the creature needed. Frankenstein later realises this when he says For the first time, I felt what the duties of a creator towards his creature were, and that I ought to render him happy before I complained of his wickedness. Elizabeth, Frankensteins wife, was also a hero as she managed to bring up everyones spirits at sad times, and she continually believed in Justines innocence. This particular genre creates a need for both heroes and villains, as it is usually the case of good trying to overpower evil, or vice-versa. To conclude, I believe that there are heroes and villains, as well as victims in this novel. Most of the characters seem to change from villains, heroes and victims throughout the novel, especially the creature and Frankenstein. In my belief the creature was made to be the victim from the opening of the novel as he was neglected, uneducated and ostracised. I believe Frankenstein could have changed everything if he had befriended the creature in the first place. On the other hand Frankenstein was also an isolated individual, although his isolation from society was brought on himself. The novel shows the shallowness of people in society by showing what the monster had to endure because of his appearance, as well as the moral irresponsibility of Frankenstein as a scientist. Frankenstein was always the villain deep down as he attempted to play God, which I dont think should be attempted by any human being. He was obsessed with the fact that he could create life, but never once to considered if it was the right thing to do. I think Shelley is basing the whole novel on, not what Frankenstein actually did, but what he fails to do.Ã The way the creature is portrayed in 3rd person narrative allows us to see the creature as a hero, villain and a victim. I believe that the creature viewed Frankenstein as a father figure and was mentally tortured when his own creator neglected him. He had nothing to live for, except revenge.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Role of Government Intervention in Environmental Issues In environmental cases, a policy framework is sometimes more effective when there is less government intervention. As the level of government intervention diminishes, this allows more flexibility for corporations to achieve efficiency. Furthermore the traditional command and control approach has proven to be costly, bureaucratic and often inefficient. It is important to address the fact that there are numerous benefits that can be achieved for both policy makers and industries, if a policy framework is based on market forces. However it is important that there is a need for some government intervention, but should be as minimal as possible. I have chosen to examine the article from the New York Times entitled RU.S. Seeking Options of Pollution RulesS. Although pollution is detrimental to our environment, you have to take into account that it is almost impossible to entirely prevent pollution. This is scientifically impossible and it would have severely negative economic impact on the industries. So the core issue becomes the fact no matter what, there will always be pollution, as long as these industries exist. So we should focus on how we can minimize this and yet at the same time have an efficient market system? Furthermore, we should also focus on how we can accomplish this so that sustainable growth and development can take place. So there is definitely a need for some form of government intervention to enforce and monitor this. Reason being that there is always an element of equality that has to be enforced, when dealing with cases such as this. For instance, larger corporations may have an advantage over smaller corporation, since they have stronger influence on politicians and lobbyists. So the governmentUs role should be to ensure that all industries (regardless size and/or power) have equal opportunities to benefit from this type of approach. In another words, the government should simply be a RwatchdogS. Government should monitor so that the distribution and transaction of the permits are done in an appropriate manner. The case of Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Corporation is a classic example of tradable permit approach. Under this model corporations are able to buy, sell and trade permits that legally allows emission. Many economists have favored this approach because this also provides incentives for technical improvement. So the aggregate effect would be that most industries would try to maximize their profits by trying to come up with new techniques to reduce the level of emission. This in turn would allow them to reduce the cost that they would have to pay from polluting. Norm Miller also endorses this approach by
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The expansion of America was a realization within the political and financial elite that there is a need for America to create markets in foreign countries for the American goods. By the turn of the 1890s there was a lot of surplus in goods that we need to penetrate overseas markets to address under consumption and economic crisis. The United States was under the premise that the countries with the largest navies and military force would eventually inherit the earth (Zinn, 1942). Before the election of President William McKinley he said that the American people needs overseas market for the surplus products since the American soil and factories are producing more than what the American people needed. This surplus should be of the advantage of the country since it will bring commercial supremacy. This supremacy led to the expansionist view in politics and even in the naval forces. President Roosevelt created propaganda for expansion in the 1890s together with other political elites who share his expansionist standpoint. Roosevelt was perhaps the greatest expansionist of his time. He was up to penetrate Hawaii, Philippines and China. In 1898, 10% of American goods were sold in the foreign markets which amounted to billions of dollars. By the year 1895, the foreign investment of American Capitalists has reached billions of dollars especially in the steel industry. This further fanned the need for the American capitalists to create overseas markets and this made engaging in war an option. As in the case of Philippines, the conflict between the Spanish conquerors and the Filipino rebels paved way for the intervention of America in the guise of Ã¢â¬Å"generosityÃ¢â¬ . In 1899, the American government under the presidency of William McKinley sent troops to the Philippines to aide the Filipinos in fighting their war against the Spaniards. Mckinley states four reasons on why he decided to colonize the Philippines. The first was he canÃ¢â¬â¢t give the Philippines back to the Spaniards. Second is that he canÃ¢â¬â¢t give the Philippines to the French. Third is that he thinks that the Philippines is Ã¢â¬Å"unfitÃ¢â¬ to govern for themselves and the forth is that he has no choice but to Ã¢â¬Å"adoptÃ¢â¬ the Filipinos and Ã¢â¬Å"civilizeÃ¢â¬ them (Zinn, 1942). By the term Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"unfitÃ¢â¬ he was under the notion that Filipinos are savages, uneducated, and unscrupulous. This only shows that even the president of a democratic country thinks lowly of a race that has endured 300 years of oppression and was courageous enough to ouster a government as strong as Spain. The country was under the Spanish rule for more than 300 hundred years and the Filipinos were craving for freedom. The Filipinos under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo were gaining much power at that time and some historians say that the Filipino people could have won the war without the American intervention. Since the Americans came on cue, just as the war was supposed to end, America took all the credit and branded themselves as heroes and liberator of the country. This scenario is similar to what the United States did to Cuba. When the Cuban rebels sought help from the United States, they sent American troops instead of financial resources (Zinn, 1942). When the Spanish colonizers where defeated, the US did not recognize the efforts of the rebels and took over Cuba. Before the US freed Cuba, they made sure that Platt amendment will be added to the constitution giving the US rights to intervene with the Cuban government. Some US bases where also retained and the Cuban market was remained opened to American exports. In the case of the Philippines, US intervention came in together with education, clothing, healthcare and other basic necessities that were deprived by the Spaniards. Since the Spaniards aimed to suppress education among Filipinos and keep them dependent to their regime, the Ã¢â¬Å"Education for everyone schemeÃ¢â¬ of the United States was a hit for most of the Filipinos. However the struggle continued for those who seek real independence (Grey, 2003). The expansionist point of view of Americans towards the Philippines was regarded as acts of robbery and oppression by a black soldier designated in the Philippines. It was a bloody war as news articles and journals of soldiers revealed that they shot Filipinos like Ã¢â¬Å"rabbitsÃ¢â¬ including the women and children who were helpless (Zinn, 1942). Discrimination in the political system was also evident since only the Americans hold office and Filipinos where kept at the lower offices of the political structure. Similar to the faith of those non-whites, the Filipino people where discriminated even in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Due to economic reasons a great percentage of Filipinos are now working abroad as domestic workers. Blue collar jobs such as domestic helpers, construction workers, waiters and etc are the most common employment for Filipinos residing in the United States (Manalansan, 2003). Because of this, stereotypes where based upon the assumption that Filipinos are uneducated and are capable of doing only menial jobs. In fact, in a British dictionary the meaning of the word Filipina is Ã¢â¬Å"domestic helperÃ¢â¬ . This may be attributed to the fact that 90% of Filipinos working abroad are females. However, we fail to see is that a large percentage of these Filipino workers have a college degree and are in fact educated. Sociology dictates that since Filipinos have been subjected to three colonizers (Spanish, Americans and Japanese) they are by nature patient, enduring and industrious. Thus, doing menial jobs are sacrifices they are willing to make just to alleviate their families current economic status (Manalansan, 2003). Today, the Philippines is the worlds major exporter of manpower especially in health care. Filipino nurses and care givers pride themselves as pioneers in their craft and the country even hails them as the present day heroes. However, when they set foot on the foreign soil, that pride turns to discrimination. Though they are well capable and well trained in nursing, skin color often hinders them from being treated the same way as that of the white nurses. A quote from the TV show Desperate Housewives uttered by Teri Hatcher says: Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, before we go any further, can I check those diplomas because I just wanna make sure that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not from some med school in the Philippines. This only supports the fact that Filipinos are still caught under the stereotype that they are incapable and are discriminated upon (Salanga, 2007). In comparison to the African-Americans, Filipinos experience greater amount of discrimination due to the fact that they are smaller, second is the portrayal of the Philippines as a country of terrorists, third is that they are uneducated and forth is that most of them donÃ¢â¬â¢t speak good English. But unknown to most Americans is that there is a thriving business of call centers in the Philippines which started in 2000. When we dial customer service and ask for help for a certain product, we might be seeking advice from Filipinos that we discriminate against. The thing is we donÃ¢â¬â¢t even notice that they are Filipinos by the way they speak. They are proficient in English and are able to address of plights properly, hence, the notion that Filipinos are dumb serves as an irony. In call centers, we ask for help from Filipinos and not the other way around. At present the Call center industry in the Philippines captures 20% of the world market share in call centers and the Philippine government aims to get 50% of share by the year 2008 (Ortigas Online, 2007). Filipinos today face what sociologists call double jeopardy. Because Filipinos are discriminated, they have difficulty of finding good jobs. It is estimated that a majority of Filipinos in the United States today are still holding blue collar jobs though some of them have white collar jobs. Some have even made it big time in the United States just like the lead singer of the Pussy Cat Dolls who is a Filipino-American (Ezugwu, 2007). Though some have made it up in the economic ladder, Filipinos still comprise the majority in service sectors jobs in the United States. Their poverty reinforces their minority status. Thus, the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"ladder of discriminationÃ¢â¬ as what sociologists call is also reinforced. Filipinos have the difficulty of upgrading their status by economic means because of these stereotypes. Thus, white Americans always associate Filipinos with poverty, terrorism, violence and ignorance. This then hinders them from alleviating their status and making their chances at getting high paying jobs a lot slimmer as compared to the whites. However, when I check the web and type Ã¢â¬Å"PhilippinesÃ¢â¬ in the search box it is amazing how it differs from what the media is projecting. As a country the Philippines has wonderful places and beautiful culture. They are deeply rooted to their religion and values which make them generally warm and happy individuals (Tope, L. & Nonan-Mercado, 2007). Their history with the Spaniards taught Filipinos how to be industrious and enduring as they were colonized by Spain for 300 years. These characteristics of Filipinos show in their approach to their work here in the United States. I think the fact that they are willing to occupy menial jobs that most Americans would shun is a manifestation that they are hardworking people. Perhaps it is this realization that led to further acceptance to the Filipino culture and the Filipino people. In the United States there are Filipino communities in every state (The Filipino, 2007) and a lot of Americans prefer to have Filipino wives saying that Filipinos make a loving wife and mother. The country also has a strong president as of pres time and aims to renew the image of the Philippines as a country filled with communists. President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo wasfeatured in the Times Magazine for the second time and was hailed as one of the most powerful women in Asia (Spaeth, 2001). Since she is very stern in her fight against terrorism the Philippines and the Filipinos are beginning to portray a wonderful picture in our minds. In addition to that, society has become more lenient as to the case of racism. Many citizens are now aware that skin color or race does not limit a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to do his job properly. Filipinos, much like the other minority groups should be given the chance to grow and show their abilities. The growing popularity of snit racism and equality has made some impact on the way Filipinos are treated, however it is not yet evident in most cases. Reference http://www.commondreams.org/scriptfiles/views03/1117-11.htm
Saturday, November 9, 2019
The article Against Schools is a very intriguing article or could case great debate and concern about public schooling systems in America today. Born in Monongahela, Pa, John Taylor Gatto is a retired America school teacher with nearly 30 years of experience in the school system. Gatto is a recipient of many awards such as: The New York City Teacher of the Year award in 1989,1990, and 1991 and The New York State Teacher of the Year award in 1991. He is broadminded perilous of compulsory schooling, and author of several books on education. Gatto voiced his belief that the public school system that we use, is not there for educational means; instead, exist to fulfill the function to cripple children in the long run. After reading GattoÃ¢â¬â¢s article and reasoning for his opinion, I harmonize with GattoÃ¢â¬â¢s belief. His article explains how our system was constructed and its purpose. I felt that the points he made displayed a lot of truth in them and it brought to reality effects about public school systems that I would have never thought to question or recognize. In the article Against School, John Taylor Gatto expresses his outlook that the public school system isnÃ¢â¬â¢t there for informative measures, instead Ã¢â¬Å"it exist to fulfill six covert functions meant to cripple our kids. Ã¢â¬ (Gatto 14 ) He speaks about the public school system not being of what we think and how it originates from the Prussian culture, which is a system deliberately designed to produce ordinary brainpowers that are simply ran. He emphasizes in the article how mandatory schooling has encouraged children not to think at all as a result leaving Ã¢â¬Å"them sitting ducks for the modern era of marketingÃ¢â¬ . (Gatto 148) Gatto states the fact that do to the training in school, Ã¢â¬Å"we have become a nation of children, happy to surrender our judgments and our wills to political exhortations and commercial blandishments that would insult actual adultsÃ¢â¬ . (Gatto 148) The article goes on to express GattoÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion that the school system encourages children not to think for their selves and children should be taught to manage their own lives. He says that he feels the solution is to simply let them be their true selves. One of the major points that Gatto explains in the article Against School is how the public school system originates from the Prussian culture and how compulsory school was intended to be just what it had been for the Perssia. According to several sources, Ã¢â¬Å"Horace Mann, credited as the father of the American public school system, studied a wide variety of educational models before implementing the Prussian system designed by Fredrick the Great. King Frederick created a system that was engineered to teach obedience and solidify his control. Focusing on following directions, basic skills, and conformity, he sought to indoctrinate the nation from an early age. Isolating students in rows and teachers in individual classrooms fashioned a strict hierarchyÃ¢â¬âintentionally fostering fear and loneliness. Mann chose the Prussian model, with its depersonalized learning and strict hierarchy of power, because it was the cheapest and easiest way to teach literacy on a large scale. Social efficiency theorists who sought to industrialize the educational process perpetuated this system throughout the early twentieth century. Led by educators such as Ellwood P. Cubberley, they used education as a tool for social engineering. Building upon the depersonalized uniformity and rigid hierarchy of the Prussian system, they constructed an industrial schooling model designed to produce millions of workers for AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s factories. Believing that most of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s students were destined for a life of menial, industrial labor, these theorists created a multi-track educational system meant to sort students from an early age. While the best and brightest were carefully groomed for leadership positions, the majority was relegated to a monotonous education of rote learning and task completion. Consequently, our schooling system is still locked into the Prussian-industrial framework of fear, isolation, and monotony. For both students and teachers, procedure is emphasized over innovation, uniformity over individual expression, and control over empowerment. It is, therefore, not surprising that the majority of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s classrooms have changed little in over one hundred years. Ã¢â¬ (Web) Gatto makes this point by stating these historical facts in his article. Gatto also gives examples of the outcome of compulsory school, which he says, results in adults that are manageable beings. He says those adults by things they donÃ¢â¬â¢t need because they are trained to believe they give some sense of proudness like a television to order more things on TV. Gatto states, Ã¢â¬Å" Easy answers have removed the need to ask questions. Ã¢â¬ (Gatto148) The point is definite proven by Gatto in the article which is that Ã¢â¬Å" mandatory education serves children incidentallyÃ¢â¬ ¦ its real purpose is to turn our children into servants. Ã¢â¬ (Gatto 149) He feels that instead of let the government managing our children, the solution is to let them manage themselves. The best way this can be achieved in GattoÃ¢â¬â¢s vision is through homeschooling children. When I thought about the public school system, I did not ever question its purpose but to be anything but benficual to children. I thought it was to enlighten them and bring out their true individualism and make them productive citizens in society. I agree with GattoÃ¢â¬â¢s article after recalling back to my experience in school. Everything was so ordered and strict, to mold everyone to be what was told of them. I did from time to time question the why can I not do this that way or why can it not be something else and I was always told by my teachers because this is the right way. Everybody does it like this so you have to as well or you are wrong. Gatto says that schooling structures us into the reliant, mindless adults we are in ways like: Ã¢â¬Å"easy divorce encouraging us not to work on relationships, easy credit removing the need for fiscal control, easy entertainment removing the need to entertain oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self, etc. Ã¢â¬ (Gatto148) It does not make sense that if we are each individuals, then why are we taught and ma to think the same. Gatto feels the solution is to go back to the original way and possibly teach children our selves, preferably at home not in a Ã¢â¬Å"institution and the government should not really have any say so over it. I believe that yes children should be encouraged to be who they truly are and explore their minds deepest capacities; however, there should still be some stucture in their lives outside of home. They need to learn to coexist with others and their own ideas as well. I do not agree with the idea of homeschooling completely. With the economy being the way it is families have to work to provide for there families and some families are single parent homes, therefore leaving no time to instruct the children to proper way. John Taylor Gatto purpose for wring the article Against schools, was to bring to light the issue that our government is corrupting Americans from the beginning through something almost everyone supports, Our educational system. Gatto more than prospered with attainment of his point being acknowledged. I was stunned to discover that the American public school system is one designed to casts an beingÃ¢â¬â¢s mind to be what its told to be, not what it is suppose to be or wants to be, and that is very disturbing to me. Gatto bringing the origin of the public school system to light did his work justice. On the contrast, I do not believe that the resolution is to teach children at home. In conclusion, the reality of it is: even though the system is corrupt and controlling, it has been operating for years and no one has changed it. We will never be able to subdue the government, so the best is to just make do the way we can. Works Cited 1. http://thenewamericanacademy. org/index. php/home/our-philosophy-menu/the-prussian-industrial-model. 2. Gatto, John Taylor. Ã¢â¬Å"Against Schools. Ã¢â¬ Rereading America. 9th ed. Ed. Gary Colombo, Robert Cullen, Bonnie Lisle. Boston: Bedford/St. MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2013. p141-150.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Must-Read Blogs for College Survival This post may look like an ordinary blog list. But it only seems so. In fact, it is not just a blog list. Blogs are not ranked by popularity or information relevance. Neither are they grouped into specific categories. However, be sure that all of these blogs contain the information you will require at some point of your college life. And when you reach that point - youll know where to look for the information you need! So, what we offer you is not a blog list, but rather a powerful college survival tool. The bloggers listed here are doing a great job supplying students with everything necessary - study tricks, tips to survive exams and cope with tasks, help with college adaptation, job opportunities, and brilliant campus life hacks. Study Prof The blog has it all - tips about studying, self development and even making yourself zombie-proof. You will find good videos and infographics here as well. The writing style is interesting, and you dont feel that you are actually reading an educational blog - you entertain while learning something new! studyprof.com/blog Grey Matters: Blog Mathematics and mental games turn out to be fun here. Reading this blog daily you actually risk to become a mathematical ninja! Though the blog is aimed at people more or less connected with math, it would be interesting for anyone who wants to develop logical thinking. headinside.blogspot.com Mind Hacks The blog concentrates more on your brain development rather than regular studying. The point is youd better start taking care of your mental health and broaden your outlook in college, and this blog is the right resource for that. It raises contradictory questions, motivates you to research, makes you think about the crucial issues and exercise your mind every day. mindhacks.com Thank You Brain Learning process and memory are interconnected and inseparable. Thus, the blog focuses on both of these processes, helping you to exercise memory and improve your learning skills. Deep research and practical relevance is what makes blog posts so valuable for the readers. After reading this blog fro a while you really get the insight to our mental processes and memory development. thankyoubrain.blogspot.com Hack College What apps will help you study? What things you have to pack for college? How to travel on a budget? What can make you really a successful student? Time to learn the truth and debunk myths on college life. And thats what HackCollege is living for! Moreover they sre looking for talented students to write for them, so you can not only read about interesting things, but also share interesting things about college life. hackcollege.com That College Kid The blog is overflowing with useful apps, tips, hacks to help you survive freshmen year and go further. You will find instructions on how to save your budget, how to raise your productivity, what classes to choose and what to do with all that education later. In other words, this blog has everything you need to turn from college kid into the college pro. thatcollegekid.com College Times College is not about studying only! It is about drinking, partying, trends in fashion, relationships, and more fun! If you want to take a minute and rest from studying routine - this site is for you. Stay in trend and enjoy life having best time in college collegetimes.com Life After College Is there life after college? Jenny Blake thinks there is, and discovers the opportunities and career prospect for college graduated in her blog. Even if you are a freshmen and there is a long college journey ahead - do not neglect this blog! Knowing what is waiting for you after college, you can start planning your life today and be prepared for the future to come. lifeaftercollege.org/blog Ã ¡ollege Info Geek As soon as you enter the site, it tells you that it will help you upgrade your college experience. Innovations, tips to make your college life easier, mistakes to avoid and geekery of course - thats what you should expect from the blog. collegeinfogeek.com/blog The College Solution Thats the resource you should read as a student and offer your parents to read as well. It offers practical solutions on different problems and issues that may appear in college. You will find answers on frequently asked questions concerning college admissions, campus life, studying abroad and much more. Perfect resource for freshmen! thecollegesolution.com Scott H Young When a writer, a programmer and a traveler (being all one person) starts a blog, it definitely has a lot to share with audience. And its not only about studying. Its about life experience in general. If you are young, active and enthusiastic you should definitely start reading this blog and sharing your ideas with the author. scotthyoung.com Cal Newport The author of books How to Become a Straight-A Student and How to Win at College definitely knows some secrets of college life, and he is eager to share them with you on his blog. The articles are thought provoking, and include deep investigation of the problems they cover. This is definitely the resource you can rely on concerning time management and planning, setting goals, proof reading, productivity and much more. calnewport.com Teen College Education Great source for students at every stage of college!Starting from freshmen and students-to-be, as it contains a lot of tips on choosing college and majors, analyzing college rankings, passing SAT, surviving college interview, and preparing for the big first day. And finishing with graduates who will find career opportunities, MBA tips, and ideas on what you can do with your university degree. The will literally guide you through the whole education process making it smooth and simple. teencollegeeducation.org Honest College Tons of free information on job search, studying abroad, travelling while college and tricks to make your college life easier. All tips are tested with time and experience and shared by the author and numerous student contributions. What can be better than real working advice straight from the students mouth? honestcollege.com SayCampusLife The last but not the least (and one of the most powerful) source of college tips. Posts are neatly divided into categories - sport, study tips, financial aid, budgeting - so youll easily find your way here. saycampuslife.com
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
The Insect Index - Sorted by Scientific Names Sort by: Common Names | Scientific Names Read more about these insects and non-insect arthropods! The following insect and other arthropod profiles are now available on the About.com Guide to Insects: Class Arachnida Orders Acari (mites and ticks)Araneae (spiders)Opiliones (daddy longlegs)Pseudoscorpiones (pseudoscorpions)Scorpiones (scorpions)Solifugae (windscorpions) Suborders Ixodida (ticks) Families Araneidae (orb weavers)Lycosidae (wolf spiders)Oxyopidae (lynx spiders)Pholcidae (cellar spiders)Pisauridae (nursery web and fishing spiders)Salticidae (jumping spiders)Theraphosidae (tarantulas)Theridiidae (cobweb spiders) Genera Latrodectus (widow spiders) Species Aurantia argiope (black and yellow garden spider)Ixodes scapularis (blacklegged tick)Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider)Tegenaria agrestis (hobo spider) Class Chilopoda Class Diplopoda Subphylum Trilobita Class Insecta Subclasses Apterygota (wingless insects)Pterygota (winged insects) Orders Blattodea (cockroaches)Cerambycidae (long-horned beetles)Coleoptera (beetles)Collembola (springtails)Dermaptera (earwigs)Diptera (true flies)Dictyoptera (roaches and mantids)Embiidina (webspinners)Ephemeroptera (mayflies)Grylloblattodea (rock crawlers)Hemiptera (true bugs)Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps)Isoptera (termites)Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)Mecoptera (scorpionflies and hangingflies)Microcoryphia (jumping bristletails)Neuroptera (nerve-winged insects)Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids)Phasmida (leaf and stick insects)Plecoptera (stoneflies)Psocoptera (barklice and booklice)Siphonaptera (fleas)Thysanoptera (thrips)Thysanura (silverfish and firebrats)Trichoptera (caddisflies)Zoraptera (angel insects) Suborders Anisoptera (dragonflies)Ixodida (ticks)Mantodea (praying mantises)Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Families Acrididae (grasshoppers)Aeshnidae (darners)Aphididae (aphids)Belostomatidae (giant water bugs)Braconidae (braconid wasps)Carabidae (ground beetles)Chrysomelidae (leaf and seed beetles)Chrysopidae (common lacewings)Coccinellidae (ladybugs)Coreidae (leaf-footed bugs)Culicidae (mosquitoes)Cynipidae (gall wasps)Dermestidae (dermestid beetles)Elateridae (click beetles)Formicidae (ants)Geometridae (geometer moths, inchworms, and loopers)Gryllidae (true crickets)Hesperiidae (skippers)Lampyridae (fireflies)Libellulidae (skimmers)Lucinidae (stag beetles)Lycaenidae (gossamer-winged butterflies)Miridae (plant bugs)Nepidae (water scorpions)Noctuidae (owlet moths)Notodontidae (prominent moths)Notonectidae (backswimmers)Nymphalidae (brush-footed butterflies)Papilionidae (swallowtails and parnassians)Passalidae (bess beetles)Pentatomidae (stink bugs)Pieridae (whites, orange-tips, sulphurs, and yellows)Reduviidae (assassin bugs)Riodinidae (metalmark butterflies)Saturniidae (giant silkworm and royal moths)Scarabaeidae (scarab beetles)Sesiidae (clearwing moths)Silphidae (carrion beetles)Sphingidae (sphinx moths)Staphylinidae (rove beetles)Stenopelmatidae (Jerusalem crickets)Tenebrionidae (darkling beetles)Tettigoniidae (katydids)Tipulidae (large crane flies) Subfamilies Arctiinae (tiger moths)Dynastinae (rhinoceros beetles)Scarabaeinae (dung beetles and tumblebugs) Genera Bombus (bumblebees)Camponotus (carpenter ants)Magicicada (periodical cicadas)Pepsis (tarantula hawks)Xylocopa (carpenter bees) Species Actias luna (luna moth)(hemlock woolly adelgid)Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer)Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle)Apis mellifera (honey bee)Boisea trivittatus (box elder bug)Cimex lectularius (bed bug)Danaus plexippus (monarch butterfly)Epargyreus clarus (silver-spotted skipper)Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)Harmonia axyridis (Asian multicolored lady beetle)(cecropia moth)Hyphantria cunea (fall webworm)Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)Malacosoma americanum (eastern tent caterpillars)Osmia lignaria (blue orchard bees)Papilio polyxenes (black swallowtail)Popillia japonica (Japanese beetles)Scutigera coleoptrata (house centipedes)Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (bagworm)Ã¢â¬â¹Vanessa cardui (painted lady)
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Education and its Methods - Assignment Example This paper shall look at the differences in the learning techniques from last week. A humanist approach that takes into account only the potential of the person as a whole may at times be misleading and detrimental to the process of development of a child. In theory, every facet of the child undergoes a change while a humanist model of education is followed by the teachers or the educators (Smith, 2003). However, this is not true. That is, it may not follow while the theory is being translated into practice. This may lead to problems whereby an aspect of a child that needs specialized attention is left out of the process of education or is not given adequate attention. Humanist education is also not easy to implement at a logistical level. In third world countries and even on certain first world countries, it is not possible to accommodate many children within a framework that provides a completely humanist form of education. As a result, it is necessary to temper any form of educati on that is taken with the positives of the others. In this context, it may be a good idea to describe a few details of the cognitivist school of learning theory. According to theorists who believe in the power of this form of learning, it is important to develop in learners the abilities to structure their own mind in such a manner that it would be easier for them to understand the new events and facts that are provided to them. In a certain course of time, they shall attain the necessary abilities for the purpose of understanding new facts on their own. This mode of learning depends on installing in a person the apparatus for further learning (Mergel, 1998). An integration of these systems may lead to complications whereby the best in both may not be utilised and the negatives of both may be inculcated in it. There may, however, on the brighter side, also develop a system that has the positives of both. This system may be able to provide specialized attention to the problem of chil dren and also develop their particular skills while also developing them as a whole. While providing children with nothing but theoretical models that do not interact, one runs the risk of losing out on motivating the child. Setting the child within a system where there is no change in the conditions of learning may lead to the child not feeling a sense of ambition which is essential for the development of a mindset that is conducive for the reception of facts. Motivating a child to create such a mindset is extremely necessary for his or her further development. This development needs to have a solid basis and this can proceed from an understanding of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and weaknesses, both of which may then be assessed according to the cognitivist and the humanist schools of learning theory. This can then also be tied to the aspect of self-regulation that needs to be a part of the education of a child. This regulation can proceed from an understanding of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s talents an d needs when faced with the world. This needs an understanding of the world and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s position in it and also knowledge of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s talents that may be put at the service of the world. This can then be used for a regulation of the manner in which education is conducted. The biological bases of learning and memory also need to be taken into account while looking at methods of imparting education to children. The age of the